Promethazine (Phenergan) Antihistamine is effective for treatment of allergies. It also is used to prevent motion sickness and in surgery applications. Phenergan is one of the brand names for distribution of Promethazine, which is the generic form of the antihistamine.
Allergies tend to be inherited. One parent with allergies makes it about a 50-50 chance of the child inheriting the reaction. Both parents give a child a 70 percent chance of developing allergies, according to the American Academy of Asthma, Allergies and Immunology. About 50 million Americans suffer allergies costing $18 billion a year, researchers say.
Promethazine and Phenergan usually are taken orally four times daily and they have side effects. They are from a class of antihistamine that causes drowsiness. Other side effects include constipation, dry mouth and dizziness.
Most people do not suffer dangerous side effects. However, drowsiness is a common side effect partially because antihistamine is used in surgical procedures.
The History of Piperoxan
The first antihistamine on the market was called Piperoxan. Jeff Forneau synthesized the first antihistamine. Daniel Bovant, assisted by Anne-Marie Staub, studied the chemical process behind Piperoxan in 1933 while testing pigs for immune responses.
A Swiss-Italian pharmacologist, Bovant led the group synthesizing the first antihistamines in 1937 and won the 1957 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.
Antihistamines were first used successfully to treat people in 1942. Bernard Halpern introduced the first product, Antergan. It was revised in 1944, then introduced in the United States in 1946 as diphenhydramine and tripellinamine.
Other Types of Antihistamines
Antihistamines became all the rage by 1950 as the first classes of antihistamines were introduced, including Ethylenediamine, Ethanolamines, Alkylamines, Piperazine and Tricyclics.
Ethylenediamines were the first group of antihistamines to be clinically effective. Those led to Ethanolamines, which led to Benadryl, an over-the-counter medication causing sleepiness but considered very effective.
Benedryl was used in nonprescription anti-allergy formulations such as Tylenol PM. The serotonin inhibiting properties also led to the development of antidepressants such as Prozac.
Ethanolamines also were used in popular Hay fever medications marketed to children due to its mild taste. A molecular variation also was the basis for NyQuil.
Alkylamines were developed with fewer drowsiness factors. Available over the counter, they were used to treat the common cold, addressing symptoms like sneezing, runny noses and watery eyes. They are the antihistamine component in Visine-A.
Piperazine was an antihistamine developed to act on parts of the brain that treat nausea and vomiting, vertigo and motion sickness. Tricyclics were antihistamines developed as antidepressants but are now used mainly for morning sickness, anti-nausea, and sedation.
The second generation of antihistamines was non-sedating, providing fewer side effects. They also varied greatly as to structure and effects. These were introduced beginning in 1981. Ranitidine, marketed as Zantac, was introduced that year becoming the most-prescribed drug by the end of the decade.
The third generation of antihistamines was developed in the 1990s with even more efficacy and fewer side effects, including far less drowsiness. This generation of drugs is currently being developed for potential treatment of Alzheimer's disease.